This document describes the serialization of the lexical markup framework (LMF) model defined as an XML model compliant with the Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) Guidelines. This serialization covers the classes of ISO 24613-1 (the LMF core model) as well as classes provided by ISO 24613-2 (the machine readable dictionary, MRD, model) and ISO 24613-3 (the etymological extension).

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This document provides a set of empirically and theoretically well-motivated concepts for dialogue annotation, a formal language for expressing dialogue annotations (the Dialogue Act Markup Language, DiAML), and a method for segmenting a dialogue into semantic units. This allows the manual or automatic annotation of dialogue segments with information about the communicative actions which the participants perform by their contributions to the dialogue. The annotation scheme specified in this docu...view more

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This document describes the machine-readable dictionary (MRD) model, a metamodel for representing data stored in a variety of electronic dictionary subtypes, ranging from direct support for human translators to support for machine processing.

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This document provides a framework for encoding a broad range of spatial information and spatiotemporal information relating to motion as expressed in natural language texts. This document includes references to locations, general spatial entities, spatial relations (involving topological, orientational, and metric values), dimensional information, motion events, paths, and event-paths triggered by motions.

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This document provides a comprehensive model for the annotation and representation of referential phenomena in natural language texts and multimodal interactions. Such phenomena can cover simple anaphoric or coreferential mechanisms as well as more complex bridging or multimodal mechanisms. It provides a reference serialisation in XML defined as a customisation of the TEI P5 guidelines. In addition, the document describes the core data categories related to referential entities and link structur...view more

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The component metadata lifecycle needs a comprehensive infrastructure with systems that cooperate well together. To enable this level of cooperation this document provides in depth descriptions and definitions of what CMDI records, components and their representations in XML look like. This document describes these XML representations, which enable the flexible construction of interoperable metadata schemas suitable for, but not limited to, describing language resources. The metadata schemas bas...view more

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This document describes the core model of the lexical markup framework (LMF)l, a metamodel for representing data in monolingual and multilingual lexical databases used with computer applications. LMF provides mechanisms that allow the development and integration of a variety of electronic lexical resource types.

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ISO 24623-1:2018 describes the abstract metamodel designed to accommodate any corpus query language (QL) and providing a basis for coarse-grained classification. The metamodel consists of several components referred to as CQLF classes, levels, and modules, and is illustrated with examples from the Single-stream class (where a single data stream is used to organize the relevant data structures). Within this class, this document discusses three CQLF levels (Linear, Complex and Concurrent), as well...view more

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ISO 24615-2:2018 describes an XML-conformant serialization of the ISO 24615‑1 meta-model, with the objective of supporting interoperability across language resources or language processing components in the domain of syntactic annotations. As an extension of ISO 24615‑1, this document is also coordinated with ISO 24612.

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ISO 24617-8:2016 establishes the representation and annotation of local, "low-level" discourse relations between situations mentioned in discourse, where each relation is annotated independently of other relations in the same discourse. ISO 24617-8:2016 provides a basis for annotating discourse relations by specifying a set of core discourse relations, many of which have similar definitions in different frameworks. To the extent possible, this document provides mappings of the semantics across t...view more

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ISO 24624:2016 specifies rules for representing transcriptions of audio- and video-recorded spoken interactions in XML documents based on the guidelines of the TEI. As a secondary objective, the document aims to relate transcribed data with standards for annotated corpora. It is applicable to transcription data for studies in sociolinguistics, conversation analysis, dialectology, corpus linguistics, corpus lexicography, language technology, qualitative social studies and other transcription data...view more

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ISO 24617-6:2016 specifies the approach to semantic annotation characterizing the ISO Semantic annotation framework (SemAF). It outlines the SemAF strategy for developing separate annotation schemes for certain classes of semantic phenomena, aiming in the long term to combine these into a single, coherent scheme for semantic annotation with wide coverage. In particular, it sets out the notions of both an abstract and a concrete syntax for semantic annotations, mirroring the distinction between a...view more

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As part of a drive to provide international standards for language resource management, ISO/TS 24620-1:2015 on controlled natural language (CNL) sets out the principles of CNL and its utilization together with the relevant supporting technology. However, ISO/TS 24620-1:2015 also aims to introduce a general view of CNL with its objectives and characteristics and provide a scheme for classifying a range of CNLs. ISO/TS 24620-1:2015 additionally specifies certain normalizing principles of CNLs that...view more

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ISO 24622:2015 describes a model that enables the flexible construction of interoperable metadata schemas for Language Resources (LRs). The metadata schemas based on this model can be used to describe resources at different levels of granularity (e.g. descriptions both on the collection level and on the level of individual resources).

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The aim of ISO 24617-4:2014 is to propose a consensual annotation scheme for semantic roles; that is to say, a scheme that indicates the role that a participant plays in an event or state, as described mostly by a verb, and typically providing answers to questions such as "?who' did ?what' to ?whom'", and ?when', ?where', ?why', and ?how'. This includes not only the semantic relations between a verb and its arguments but also those relations that are relevant for other predicative elements such ...view more

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A discourse is a process of communication. ISO/TS 24617-5:2014 addresses how a discourse is structured in terms of its realization/presentation and content, and shows how its dual structure can be represented in a graph. The current specification focuses on the annotation of discourse structures in text only, but it can be extended to discourses in other modalities.

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ISO 24615-1:2014 describes the syntactic annotation framework (SynAF), a high level model for representing the syntactic annotation of linguistic data, with the objective of supporting interoperability across language resources or language processing components. ISO 24615-1:2014 is complementary and closely related to ISO 24611 (MAF, morpho-syntactic annotation framework) and provides a metamodel for syntactic representations as well as reference data categories for representing both constituenc...view more

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ISO 24611:2012 provides a framework for the representation of annotations of word-forms in texts; such annotations concern tokens, their relationship with lexical units, and their morpho-syntactic properties.It describes a metamodel for morpho-syntactic annotation that relates to a reference to the data categories contained in the ISOCat data category registry (DCR, as defined in ISO 12620). It also describes an XML serialization for morpho-syntactic annotations, with equivalences to the guideli...view more

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ISO 24617-2:2012 provides a set of empirically and theoretically well-motivated concepts for dialogue annotation, a formal language for expressing dialogue annotations -- the dialogue act markup language (DiAML) -- and a method for segmenting a dialogue into semantic units. This allows the manual or automatic annotation of dialogue segments with information about the communicative actions which the participants perform by their contributions to the dialogue. It supports multidimensional annotati...view more

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ISO 24616:2012 provides a generic platform for modeling and managing multilingual information in various domains: localization, translation, multimedia annotation, document management, digital library support, and information or business modeling applications. MLIF (multilingual information framework) provides a metamodel and a set of generic data categories [ISO 12620:2009] for various application domains. MLIF also provides strategies for the interoperability and/or linking of models including...view more

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ISO 24612:2012 specifies a linguistic annotation framework (LAF) for representing linguistic annotations of language data such as corpora, speech signal and video. The framework includes an abstract data model and an XML serialization of that model for representing annotations of primary data. The serialization serves as a pivot format to allow annotations expressed in one representation format to be mapped onto another.

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Temporal information in natural language texts is an increasingly important component to the understanding of those texts. ISO 24617-1:2012, SemAF-Time, specifies a formalized XML-based markup language called ISO-TimeML, with a systematic way to extract and represent temporal information, as well as to facilitate the exchange of temporal information, both between operational language processing systems and between different temporal representation schemes. The use of guidelines for temporal anno...view more

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ISO 24610-2:2011 provides a format to represent, store or exchange feature structures in natural language applications, for both annotation and production of linguistic data. It is ultimately designed to provide a computer format to define a type hierarchy and to declare the constraints that bear on a set of feature specifications and operations on feature structures, thus offering means to check the conformance of each feature structure with regards to a reference specification. Feature structu...view more

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The basic concepts and general principles of word segmentation as defined in ISO 24614-1 apply to Chinese, Japanese and Korean. Text needs to be segmented into tokens, words, phrases or some other types of smaller textual units in order to perform certain computational applications on language resources, such as natural language processing, information retrieval and machine translation. ISO 24614-2:2011 is restricted to the segmentation of a text into words or other word segmentation units (WSUs...view more

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ISO 24619:2011 specifies requirements for the persistent identifier (PID) framework and for using PIDs as references and citations of language resources in documents as well as in language resources themselves. In this context, examples of language resources include such works as digital dictionaries, language-purposed terminological resources, machine-translation lexica, annotated multimedia/multimodal corpora, text corpora that have been annotated with, for example, morpho-syntactic informatio...view more

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ISO 24614-1:2010 presents the basic concepts and general principles of word segmentation, and provides language-independent guidelines to enable written texts to be segmented, in a reliable and reproducible manner, into word segmentation units (WSU). The many applications and fields that need to segment texts into words — and thus to which ISO 24614-1:2010 can be applied — include translation, content management, speech technologies, computational linguistics and lexicography.

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ISO 24613:2008 describes the Lexical Markup Framework (LMF), a metamodel for representing data in lexical databases used with monolingual and multilingual computer applications. LMF provides mechanisms that allow the development and integration of a variety of electronic lexical resource types. These mechanisms will present existing lexicons as far as possible. If this is impossible, problematic information will be identified and isolated.

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ISO 24610-1:2006 provides a format for the representation, storage and exchange of feature structures in natural language applications concerned with the annotation, production or analysis of linguistic data. It also defines a computer format for the description of constraints that bear on a set of features, feature values, feature specifications and operations on feature structures, thus offering a means of checking the conformance of each feature structure with regards to a reference specifica...view more

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