Springs -- Symbols

ISO 16249:2013 specifies specifies general principles for the creation of symbols of physical quantities, coefficients, and parameters for metal springs. It specifies the presentation of basic characters, subscripts, and application symbols for use in the field of helical compression springs, helical extension springs, helical torsion springs, flat springs, and leaf springs with attention to technical product documentation, especially for describing and ordering.

Ressorts -- Symboles

General Information

Status
Published
Publication Date
08-Apr-2013
Technical Committee
Drafting Committee
Current Stage
6060 - International Standard published
Start Date
12-Mar-2013
Completion Date
09-Apr-2013
Ref Project

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INTERNATIONAL ISO
STANDARD 16249
First edition
2013-04-01
Springs — Symbols
Ressorts — Symboles
Reference number
ISO 16249:2013(E)
ISO 2013
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
COPYRIGHT PROTECTED DOCUMENT
© ISO 2013

All rights reserved. Unless otherwise specified, no part of this publication may be reproduced or utilized otherwise in any form

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written permission. Permission can be requested from either ISO at the address below or ISO’s member body in the country of

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Published in Switzerland
ii © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
Contents Page

Foreword ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................iv

Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................v

1 Scope ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 1

2 Normative references ...................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4 Composition of spring symbols ............................................................................................................................................................. 1

4.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 1

4.2 Basic characters ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

4.3 Subscripts .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 2

5 Creation of new spring symbols ........................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.1 General ........................................................................................................................................................................................................... 3

5.2 Latin letters and Greek letters for basic characters ................................................................................................ 3

5.3 Upper case letters and lower case letters for basic characters ..................................................................... 3

5.4 Latin letters and Greek letters for subscripts ............................................................................................................... 3

5.5 Upper case letters and lower case letters for subscripts ......... ........................................................................... 3

6 Basic character and subscript components of spring symbols ............................................................................ 3

6.1 Basic character components ....................................................................................................................................................... 3

6.2 Subscript components ...................................................................................................................................................................... 4

7 Application symbols for helical compression springs .................................................................................................. 5

8 Application symbols for helical extension springs ........................................................................................................... 9

9 Application symbols for helical torsion springs ...............................................................................................................10

10 Application symbols for flat springs .............................................................................................................................................14

11 Application symbols for leaf springs ............................................................................................................................................15

Annex A (normative) List of interim symbols ..........................................................................................................................................17

Annex B (informative) Index of application symbols .......................................................................................................................18

Bibliography .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................21

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved iii
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
Foreword

ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of national standards

bodies (ISO member bodies). The work of preparing International Standards is normally carried out

through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a subject for which a technical

committee has been established has the right to be represented on that committee. International

organizations, governmental and non-governmental, in liaison with ISO, also take part in the work.

ISO collaborates closely with the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) on all matters of

electrotechnical standardization.

The procedures used to develop this document and those intended for its further maintenance are

described in the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 1. In particular the different approval criteria needed for the

different types of ISO documents should be noted. This document was drafted in accordance with the

editorial rules of the ISO/IEC Directives, Part 2. www.iso.org/directives

Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this document may be the subject of

patent rights. ISO shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights. Details of

any patent rights identified during the development of the document will be in the Introduction and/or

on the ISO list of patent declarations received. www.iso.org/patents

Any trade name used in this document is information given for the convenience of users and does not

constitute an endorsement.
The committee responsible for this document is ISO/TC 227, Springs.
iv © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
Introduction

Several spring symbols related to cylindrical helical compression springs specified in ISO 2162-2 have

been quoted according to this International Standard.

In this International Standard, existing spring symbols that have been used globally and customarily

among several nations or regions are adopted without major alteration.

Existing spring symbols that have been used locally or in a limited nation/region have been redesigned

in a logical way according to a particular rule for creating new spring symbols.
© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved v
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INTERNATIONAL STANDARD ISO 16249:2013(E)
Springs — Symbols
1 Scope

This International Standard specifies general principles for the creation of symbols of physical quantities,

coefficients, and parameters for metal springs. It specifies the presentation of basic characters, subscripts,

and application symbols for use in the field of helical compression springs, helical extension springs,

helical torsion springs, flat springs, and leaf springs with attention to technical product documentation,

especially for describing and ordering.
2 Normative references

The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are

indispensable for its application. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated

references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.

ISO 26909, Springs — Vocabulary
ISO 80000-1, Quantities and units — Part 1: General
ISO 80000-4, Quantities and units — Part 4: Mechanics
3 Terms and definitions

For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in ISO 26909 and the following apply.

3.1
basic character

main part of spring symbols representing physical quantities, coefficients, and parameters of springs

3.2
subscript

second part of spring symbols that follows basic characters in order to modify the physical quantities,

coefficients, and parameters with respect to properties, feature, numbering, etc.

3.3
application symbol
combination of basic character and subscript
EXAMPLE Application symbol
4 Composition of spring symbols
4.1 General

Simple spring symbols consist of basic characters alone. Subscripts may be added to these basic

characters to create more complex symbols.

Quantities and units used are specified in accordance with ISO 80000-1 and ISO 80000-4.

© ISO 2013 – All rights reserved 1
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ISO 16249:2013(E)

For the purpose of international applicability, all basic characters and subscripts should be derived

from English words, and designations used in technical literature up to the time of publication of this

International Standard are adopted as far as possible. Wide conformity of the symbols for springs has

been attempted.

The characters that are permitted to be used for spring symbols are Latin letters (upper case or lower

case), Greek letters (upper case or lower case), and Arabic numbers.

NOTE 1 As there is a risk of confusion with the Arabic number 0, the following Latin letters have not been

specified: O (upper case letter), o (lower case letter).

NOTE 2 As there is a risk of confusion with Latin letters, the following Greek letters have not been specified: Α,

Β, Ε, Ζ, Η, Ι, Κ, κ, Μ, Ν, Ο, ο, Ρ, Τ, Υ and Χ.
4.2 Basic characters

Basic characters consist of one upper case letter or lower case letter written in Latin or Greek alphabet.

The letter should be derived from the corresponding spring term or designation in English.

Variables shall be in italic typeface.
EXAMPLES D for coil diameter, τ for torsional stress
4.3 Subscripts

Subscripts consist of one, two or three letters, digits, or letter/digit combinations of Latin letters, Greek

letters or Arabic numbers.
EXAMPLE 1 D (e: one letter)
EXAMPLE 2 A (L0: two letters)
EXAMPLE 3 d (max: three letters)
max

Subscripts should be as short as possible. A single letter/digit is preferable; however, when the symbol

of a single letter/digit overlaps with an existing symbol or if it is difficult to describe the meaning with

a single letter/digit, two or three letters/digits are acceptable.
EXAMPLE 4 A (M: one letter taken from “moment”)
EXAMPLE 5 d (max: three letters taken from “maximum”)
max

The letters should be derived from the corresponding spring terms or designation in English.

Subscripts that represent physical quantities shall be printed in italic typeface. Others shall be printed

in roman typeface. Subscripts of Arabic numbers should be printed in roman typeface. However, running

numbers are generally printed in italic typeface.
EXAMPLE 6 A (L0: free length: italic type)
EXAMPLE 7 l (A: length at leg A: roman type)
EXAMPLE 8 L (1: running number: italic type)

Up to two sets of subscripts are permitted in one spring symbol. In this case, they shall be separated by

means of a comma (,) but without a space between them.
EXAMPLE 9 r , (w,A: effective working radius of leg A)
w A
2 © ISO 2013 – All rights reserved
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
5 Creation of new spring symbols
5.1 General

New spring symbols created in the future should follow the rules described below. The composition of

the symbols should conform to Clause 4.
5.2 Latin letters and Greek letters for basic characters

Latin letters for basic characters are used when describing coefficients or quantities measured by

devices or instruments, e.g. length, diameter, and load (including mean value).

Greek letters for basic characters are used when describing the quantities calculated, e.g. stress,

deflection, and amount of loss.
5.3 Upper case letters and lower case letters for basic characters

Upper case letters for basic characters are used when describing quantities of the whole spring

shape or function.

EXAMPLES 1 L for spring length, D for diameter of coil, F for spring load

Lower case letters for basic characters are used when describing quantities of spring materials or

partial dimensions.
EXAMPLES 2 d for diameter of wire, l for straight length at coil end
5.4 Latin letters and Greek letters for subscripts
Basic Latin letters and Greek letters shall be used for subscripts.
When subscripts are abbreviated terms, they shall be in Latin typeface only.
5.5 Upper case letters and lower case letters for subscripts

In the case of subscripts consisting of a single character, upper case letters should be used basically.

When a subscript consists of a single character and the upper case letter of this character is already used

for an existing symbol, the lower case letter may be used.

When an upper case letter is used as a basic character, the corresponding subscript should be the

upper case letter.

When a lower case letter is used as a basic character, the corresponding subscript should be the

lower case letter.

In the case of subscripts consisting of two or three characters, lower case letters should be used basically.

6 Basic character and subscript components of spring symbols
6.1 Basic character components
Basic characters are shown in Table 1.
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
Table 1 — List of basic characters
No. Symbol Parameter Compression Extension Torsion Flat Leaf
1.1 A permissible variation X X X X X
1.2 b width or breadth — — — X X
1.3 C camber — — — — X
1.4 D spring diameter X X X — —
1.5 d wire diameter X X X — —
1.6 E modulus of elasticity — — X X X
perpendicularity X — — — —
1.7 e
parallelism X — — — —
1.8 F spring load or force X X X X X
1.9 f frequency X X X X X
1.10 G modulus of rigidity X X — — —
1.11 H spring height — — — — X
1.12 L spring length X X X — —
leg length — — X — —
1.13 l beam length — — — X —
span length — — — — X
1.14 M moment or spring torque — — X X —
1.15 m hook opening — X — — —
1.16 N number of cycles X X X X X
number of coils X X X — —
1.17 n
number of leaves — — — — X
1.18 p pitch X — — — —
1.19 spring rate X X X X X
See Annex A
1.20 r radius — X X X —
1.21 s spring deflection X X — X X
1.22 T temperature X X X X X
1.23 t thickness of beam or leaf — — — X X
position angle when
— — X — —
unloaded only
1.24 α
torsional angle or
— — X — —
working angle
1.25 Δ amount of change X X X X X
1.26 σ bending stress — — X X X
1.27 τ torsional stress X X — — —
6.2 Subscript components
Subscripts are shown in Table 2.
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ISO 16249:2013(E)
Table 2 — List of subscripts
No. Symbol Parameter Compression Extension Torsion Flat Leaf
eye A — — — — X
2.1 A
leg A — — X — —
coiling body — X X — —
2.2 B eye B — — — — X
leg B — — X — —
2.3 c solid X — — — —
diameter of coil or diameter of
2.4 D X X X — —
spring
2.5 d mandrel or inner guide X — X — —
2.6 E eye — — — — X
external or outside X X X — —
2.7 e
natural X X X X X
2.8 F spring load or force X X X X X
2.9 H hook — X — — —
deflection between two posi-
2.10 h X X X — —
tions
inside or inner X X X — —
2.11 i
initial — X — — —
2.12 L0 free length X X — — —
2.13 M moment or spring torque — — X — —
2.14 max maximum X X X X X
2.15 min minimum X X X X X
2.16 n maximum test point X X X — —
2.17 R required X X X X X
2.18 ST straight — — — — X
2.19 t total X — — — —
2.20 w effective working — — X — —
2.21 0 free condition or unloaded X X X X X
measuring position of perpen-
1 X — — — —
dicularity
2.22
running number (specified
1 X X X X X
position)
measuring position of parallel-
2 X — — — —
ism
2.23
running number (specified
2 X X X X X
position)
7 Application symbols for helical compression springs
Application symbols for helical compression springs are shown in Tab
...

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